Expertise documents

The New Winemaking Update – Organic Version: Copper sulfate use in organic vineyards – are wine yeast and bacteria affected by this fungicide?

In 2017, the organic vineyard areas had tripled in 10 years and approximately 5% of worldwide vineyards are now under organic certifications.  For organic growers, who cannot use other fungicide sprays, copper sulfate is still an effective tool against downy mildew. With the increased production of organic vineyards in the world, the use of this fungicide has also grown with the expansion of this type of farming. It is known that elevated concentrations of this metal can be toxic to yeasts and bacteria. Our results have shown that wine yeast and bacteria do not appear to be significantly affected by Cu concentrations higher than 15 mg/L, except in the case of malolactic fermentation in white wines, where concentration > 7.5 mg/L can impact the MLF. High pH and high Cu concentrations can impact wine yeast viability and lag phase. To read more about this topic, please consult our Winemaking Update - Organic Version WUP Organic 2020 Cu- ENG LR

A new concept of Lactobacillus plantarum in high pH wines

This edition of the Winemaking Update presents the latest findings on the use of Lactobacillus plantarum wine bacteria based on new concepts for achieving MLF and for limiting the growth of indigenous flora and possible harmful wine microbes WUP No 1-2015 ML Prime - South Africa

Wine bacteria to control volatile phenols from Brettanomyces

This issue of the Winemaking Update explores a natural way to control Brettanomyces yeast and the volatile phenols they produce, with selected wine bacteria used to conduct malolactic fermentation.WUP #2 2014 South Africa

YSEO process: a unique yeast production process

Lallemand has developed a unique yeast production process called YSEO® (Yeast Security and Sensory Optimization). This process increases fermentation reliability and security and ensures fewer organoleptic deviations, but not all yeast can be prepared by this process. The process (when compared to non YSEO®):
  • Improves the yeast cells assimilation of essential micronutrients and vitamins.
  • Improves the yeasts ability to implant in the must for a more reliable fermentation.
  • Linked to a reduction in yeast stress thereby reducing H2S, VA and SO2 production.
  • Shorter lag phase.
  • Improves the resistance and adaption of the yeast under difficult fermentation conditions.
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Rosé fermentation

In 2006, the world production of rosé wines was estimated at 21.5 million hL – 9% of the total world production of wine (Aigrain 2009). Production has been increasing for several years. In the United Kingdom, for example the main sellers are rosé wines from the United States – almost half of the total wines sold in supermarkets. From a technical point of view, the production of rosé wine involves particular considerations as rosé is mid-way between white wine (avoiding the extraction of phenolic compounds at the tannin level) and red wine (involving potential problems with colour extraction and structure). When short maceration times are used in the production of high quality rosé wines, the wines can be fragile and evolve rapidly. One of the most frequent developments is the appearance of premature lactic and creamy aromas that can override the fruity aromas in the nose and the refreshing sensation in retronasal perception. Download PDF