The control and elimination of spoilage microorganisms in wine has been forefront in research for many years.
Brettanomyces bruxellensis are a threat to wine quality. These spoilage yeasts are capable of developing under difficult conditions (high alcohol, nutritional deficiencies, high SO2…) at any moment during the life of a wine, and especially during aging. They are responsible for the production of undesirable aromatic compounds: volatile phenols (4-ethyl-phenol, 4-ethyl-guaiacol, 4-ethyl-catechol). These compounds give rise to the perception of disagreeable ‘animallike’ notes (leather, horse, stable, chicken coop), pharmaceutical notes (Band-Aid®, medicine). In many wine regions, the volume of wine affected by this spoilage is relatively large. Studies carried out by the AWRI show that this defect is detected and rejected not only by professionals but also and especially by consumers.
Bacteria population of acetic and lactic acid can also be problematic in wines as it can lead to increase in biogenic amines, as well as of volatile acidity.
The use of fungal chitosan, a derivative of chitin has shown great potential in the control of those spoilage microbes. Chitin is the second most common bio-polymer in nature after cellulose. Chitosan is already used as an effective bio-pesticide as well as been shown to be effective against numerous pathogens from Salmonella to E.coli. It is non-allergenic, non-GMO and 100% biodegradable.
Lallemand Oenology has developed product of natural origin that can help control the development of those microorganisms. No Brett Inside® and Bactiless® are both chitosan based products highly effective against those spoilage microbes. Both products can also be used in a SO2 reduction strategy during winemaking.