Expertise documents

The New Winemaking Update – Organic Version: Copper sulfate use in organic vineyards – are wine yeast and bacteria affected by this fungicide?

In 2017, the organic vineyard areas had tripled in 10 years and approximately 5% of worldwide vineyards are now under organic certifications.  For organic growers, who cannot use other fungicide sprays, copper sulfate is still an effective tool against downy mildew. With the increased production of organic vineyards in the world, the use of this fungicide has also grown with the expansion of this type of farming. It is known that elevated concentrations of this metal can be toxic to yeasts and bacteria. Our results have shown that wine yeast and bacteria do not appear to be significantly affected by Cu concentrations higher than 15 mg/L, except in the case of malolactic fermentation in white wines, where concentration > 7.5 mg/L can impact the MLF. High pH and high Cu concentrations can impact wine yeast viability and lag phase. To read more about this topic, please consult our Winemaking Update - Organic Version WUP Organic 2020 Cu- ENG LR

Biocontrol agents against Brettanomyces

The contaminating yeast Brettanomyces is a problem, notably for red wines. This yeast is very opportunistic and can survive and multiply in difficult conditions throughout the life of the wine. Hygienic conditions and microbiological controls can inhibit its growth, but will not eliminate it. The goal then is to limit its development, which will in turn limit the production of volatile phenols. The use of SO2 is the preferred method to control its development, however there is a recent trend to reduce the use of SO2 in wine, as well as a general increase in wine pH, which reduces its efficacy. Moreover, there is a great variability in the resistance of SO2 among different Brettanomyces yeasts. The inoculation with our selected natural bacteria is a good option to protect the wine during the fermentation process, and new studies also show their potential to protect wine during the ageing steps against Brettanomyces re-contamination UI #4 Biocontrol MLB ENG

Optimal wine yeast nutrition with Stimula Chardonnay™ for maximum aromatic expression in Chardonnay wines

Wine yeasts are able to produce volatile aroma compounds from precursors found in the grape musts. Despite this ability, the wine yeast needs an adapted nutrition management (type of nutrient and timing of addition) that will maximize this secondary metabolism. Work done in collaboration with INRA (Montpellier, France) has shown that the type of nutrient, and the timing of addition during alcoholic fermentation has an important impact on the production of fermentative aroma compounds. Stimula Chardonnay™ has been shown to maximize specific aroma compounds in Chardonnay wines UI Stimula Chardonnay 2019 - ENG  

Co-inoculation of selected wine bacteria

The advantages of co-inoculation are numerous, such as ensuring a faster more secure process and reducing time for the MLF. Co-inoculation is an important modulator in sensory development, and it helps limit the development of spoilage microorganisms and thus limits off flavor compound productions.

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Biodiversity meets Terrior – 2016 Proceedings of the Entretiens Scientifiques Lallemand

Proceedings of the XXVIth Entretiens Scientifiques Lallemand held in Osoyoos, Canada focused on understanding that microbiological diversity is essential for controlling the production of quality wine.  Topics presented included the diversity of microbial populations in the vineyard and in winery fermentations. ESL 2016 Canada - ENG