Expertise documents

Biogenic Amines in Wine and how to control them

Biogenic amines are found in fermented food and beverages, including wine. Of the many biogenic amines, histamine, tyramine and putrescine are the most important in wine. It is the metabolism of amino acids by lactic acid bacteria that produce the biogenic amines found in wine. Red wines tend to have higher biogenic amines content than white wines, as this wine type all under go the bacteria driven malolactic fermentation. The direct decarboxylation of amino acids results in the formation of biogenic amines. Extensive biochemical and genomic characterisation has led to simple tests for the identification of biogenic amine genes in LAB strains. Wines produced using native microflora can have high biogenic amine content. Consumer safety justifies taking extra precautions to avoid the production of biogenic amines. Good winemaking practices should be used to avoid the production of biogenic amines; management of must and wine pH to minimise the proliferation of native microflora, stabilise musts or wines for antimicrobial protection with SO2 or new biological solutions (such as Bactiless™) and use malolactic bacteria strains (and particularly in co-inoculation) that have been screened for the absence of biogenic amine genes. Compatible with organic winemaking or in a strategy to reduce chemical additions, the use of malolactic bacteria is a key step to achieve wines with low to no biogenic amines. WE Biogenic Amines - ENG


Co-inoculation is the practice of inoculating selected wine bacteria at the beginning of the winemaking process shortly after yeast inoculation, usually 24 to 48 hours after yeast inoculation. This technique is advantageous because not only will it secure the malolactic fermentation (MLF), but also because there are definite advantages that are recognized by winemakers and professionals. For a successful co-inoculation, some parameters are crucial for its success – choosing the right wine yeast, correctly rehydrated, good temperature management and the proper yeast nutrition strategy are keys point to integrate for any fermentations. Well-fed and heathly wine yeast and bacteria leads to complete and regular alcoholic and malolactic fermentations Based on 20 years of experiences, and from the results of many collaborations between Lallemand and research center from France, Spain, Italie, South Africa, Argentina and Germany has shown the benefits of co-inoculation with either Oenococcus oeni or Lactobacillus plantarum. UI Bacteria #1 co inoculation Australia 2018  

Management of malolactic fermentation to enhance red wine color and reduce the risk of Brettanomyces spoilage

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is an integral step in red winemaking, which not only is wine de-acidification, as it will also influence the composition of volatile fermentation-derived compounds with concomitant effects on wine sensory properties and the wine color profile. Long-established winemaking protocols for MLF induction generally involve inoculation of bacteria starter cultures post-alcoholic fermentation, however, more recently there has been a trend to introduce bacteria earlier in the fermentation process. Co-inoculation greatly reduces the overall fermentation time, and the rate of alcoholic fermentation is generally not affected by the presence of bacteria. In addition, the fermentation-derived wine volatiles profile is distinct in wines where bacteria were inoculated at a later stage of alcoholic fermentation. Most red wine studies have shown an overall slight decrease in wine colour density following MLF, but this is not influenced by the MLF inoculation regime. However, there can be differences in anthocyanin and pigmented polymer composition, with co-inoculation exhibiting the most distinct profile. Studies in Pinot Noir have shown some more significant loss in color following MLF. The color stability in Pinot noir wines following MLF can be influenced by several parameters and winemaking practices; onset and speed of MLF, time length of a planned MLF delay and the species of LAB used for MLF (Oenococcus oeni or Lactobacillus plantarum). Acetaldehyde is important in color formation and MLF can influence this process. MLF ENG Final  

Alcoholic and malolactic fermentations: what impact on freshness?

In the context of climate change, increased pH and alcohol content can result in heavier wines, while some consumers are moving towards a lighter, fresher style of wine. Beyond the notion of acidity, the sensory aspect must also be taken into account (fresh fruit aromas, vegetal notes, etc.). From veraison to bottling, each step can have an impact on the different layers of a wine’s freshness. This article aims to present recent results and tools related to fermentation management and the search for freshness in winemaking. Freshness ENG F

Co-inoculation of wine bacteria during Wine fermentation: From new fad to a recognized practice

Co-inoculation is the practice of inoculating selected wine bacteria at the beginning of the winemaking process shortly after yeast inoculation. This technique has gained popularity not only because it assures a fast and complete malolactic fermentation, but also because there are numerous other advantages that are recognized by winemakers and wine professionals. In France and Spain for example, close to 50% of MLF is now conducted with co-inoculation. Co-inoculation plays a key role for a faster and more secure MLF process, an earlier wine stabilization, along with cost and energy saving. It limits the development of spoilage microorganisms and thus reduces off flavor compound production, ensuring wine quality. Co-Inoculation - Benefits -ENG